Fig. 1. The expression of specific biomarkers: interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), clusterin, and cystatin C in the plasma of control rats, rats treated with adenine (A), or canagliflozin (C), separately or in combination. Each column and vertical bar represent mean ± SEM (n = 6). Differences between the groups were assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test.