Fig. 1. Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by substance P (SP) under normal conditions. SP-induced EPCs and BMSCs mobilization in normal rats. SP was intravenously injected into rats, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 ml blood on day 3 were harvested for fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis (A-B) and colony forming unit (CFU)-e and CFU-f assay (C-E). Results are shown as the mean ± SD. Statistical significance was considered when *p<0.05, **p<0.01, and ***p<0.001 compared to saline group.