Fig. 5. Substance P (SP)-mediated improvements after ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) versus those observed after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) injection, based on echocardiographic analysis. SP or GCSF was injected twice on days 0 and 1 post-IRI and echocardiograms were taken 1week post- IRI. (A) Representative echocardiogram images for each group. (B) Left ventricle (LV) systolic dimension, (C) LV diastolic dimension, (D) %FS (fractional shortening), and (E) %EF (ejection fraction). Sham-operated (n = 10), IRI + saline (n = 12), IRI + SP (n = 12), IRI + GCSF (n = 12). The data are shown as the mean SD. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.