Fig. 7. Substance P (SP) injection markedly improved cardiac function under permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The LAD coronary artery was permanently ligated. Sham, saline, SP, or granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (GCSF) was intravenously injected twice a week for 2 weeks, and heart function was monitored at 4 and 8 weeks. (A) Scheme for myocardial-infarction model. (B, C) Representative echocardiogram images. The left ventricle (LV) systolic dimension (D), LV diastolic dimension (E), %EF (ejection fraction) (F), and %FS (fractional shortening) (G) were measured. n = 6 per group. The data are shown as the mean SD. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.