Table 1. Baseline characteristics of healthy control (HC), and diabetic control (DC) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) group. Data are presented as means SEM and as median (interquartile ranges) for non-normally distributed data. * P < 0.05 compared with DC. ** P < 0.01 compared with DC. *** P < 0.001 compared with DC. BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); FBS, fasting blood sugar (mmol/l); ACR, albumin/ creatinine ratio (g/mol); RBP, retinol-binding protein; Cr, creatinine; NR, not recorded; ND, not done