Fig. 5. Inhibition of MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways suppressed palmitate induced MIP-1α production. THP-1 cells were pretreated with MEK-ERK inhibitors (PD98059: 10μM) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125: 20μM) for 1hr and then incubated with palmitate for 24 hrs. Cells and supernatants were collected. MIP-1α mRNA and protein were determined by real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively (A and B). Cells were pretreated with NF-kB signaling pathways inhibitors (NDGA: 10μM, Bay 11-7085:10μM, Triptolide: 5μM) and then incubated with palmitate as indicated. MIP-1α mRNA and protein were determined (C and D). Cells were pretreated with PI3 Kinase/AKT pathway inhibitors (LY294002: 50μM; Wortmannin: 100nM) for 1 hr and then incubated with palmitate. MIP-1α mRNA and protein were determined (E and F). The results obtained from three independent experiments are shown. The data are presented as mean ąSEM. Statistical analysis was done using t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. * P<0.05.