Fig. 3. Effects of thermal treatment on adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of TMSC. TMSC were exposed to FIR irradiation or heat (38°C) using the Chamlide heat incubator for 30 min and further incubated in differentiation medium for up to 14 days. (A) Accumulation of lipid droplets, (B) protein levels of PPARγ, FABP4, and GAPDH, (C) mineralization, and (D) protein levels of osteocalcin, ALP, and GAPDH were measured as described in the legend of Fig. 2. The results are representative of three independent experiments, and each bar represents the mean ± S.D. Differences were statistically significant at *p<0.05, **p<0.01, and ***p<0.001. N.S., not significant.