Fig. 2. Elamipretide alleviates oxidative stress and restores renal mitochondrial function. A. Renal production of superoxide anion (DHE: pink, DAPI: blue) was increased in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) and attenuated by elamipretide. B. Elamipretide increased total cardiolipin content and complex-IV activity in the ARAS kidney, while mitochondrial ATP/ADP ratios were not different among the groups. Renal expressions of PGC-1α and PPAR-α increased in ARAS, and elamipretide reversed them. Renal expressions of MFN-2 and DRP-1 were elevated in both ARAS and ARAS+elamipretide kidneys. N, Normal; N+E, Normal+elamipretide; A, ARAS; A+E, ARAS+elamipretide. *P<0.05 vs. Normal, ćP<0.05 vs. ARAS.