Fig. 3. Elamipretide restores mitophagy in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) kidneys. A. The area of TOM20 (green) and Parkin (red) co-staining in renal tubules (arrow), reflecting mitophagy, was decreased in ARAS and restored in ARAS+elamipretide. Blue, DAPI. B. Elamipretide increased Parkin in mitochondria and decreased P62 expression in the ARAS stenotic kidneys. C. Representative confocal images of TOM20 (green) at 100X magnification. In ARAS, mitochondria were more round and fewer than normal groups, and dispersed in the cytoplasm. Despite a significant increase in mitochondrial density, some ARAS+elamipretide mitochondria remained fragmented and located in perinuclear area. N, Normal; N+E, Normal+elamipretide; A, ARAS; A+E, ARAS+elamipretide. *P<0.05 vs. Normal, ćP<0.05 vs. ARAS.