Fig. 6. Elamipretide decreases p53 gene expression in stenotic kidneys (STKs), whereas expression of γ-phosphorylated histone-2AX (γH2AX), PAI-1, MCP-1, and TGFβ remained unaltered. A. Renal SA-β-Gal enzyme activity was elevated in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) and ARAS+elamipretide, and only slightly decreased by elamipretide. B. γH2AX activation in ARAS remained unchanged in the ARAS+elamipretide kidney. C. Renal p16 and p21 gene expression did not differ among the groups, whereas p53 gene expression was increased in ARAS and decreased after elamipretide treatment. D. PAI-1, MCP-1 and TGFβ expression was upregulated in both ARAS and ARAS+elamipretide kidneys, while TNFα expression levels were not different among the groups. E. The expression of PAI-1 and MCP-1 levels was directly correlated with renal γH2AX expressions and SA-β-Gal activity. N, Normal; N+E, Normal+elamipretide; A, ARAS; A+E, ARAS+elamipretide. *P<0.05 vs. Normal, ćP<0.05 vs. ARAS.